By Frank C. Keil, Robert A. Wilson
Motives appear to be a wide and average a part of our cognitive lives. As Frank Keil and Robert Wilson write, "When a cognitive task is so ubiquitous that it's expressed either in a preschooler's idle questions and in paintings that's the fruits of many years of scholarly attempt, one has to invite even if we actually have one and an analogous phenomenon or in basic terms diverse cognitively dependent phenomena which are loosely, or perhaps metaphorically, related."This booklet is rare in its interdisciplinary method of that ubiquitous task. The essays deal with 5 uncomplicated questions on clarification: How do explanatory capacities improve? Are there varieties of clarification? Do factors correspond to domain names of data? Why will we search motives, and what do they accomplish? How relevant are factors to clarification? The essays draw on paintings within the background and philosophy of technological know-how, the philosophy of brain and language, the advance of ideas in little ones, conceptual switch in adults, and reasoning in human and synthetic structures. additionally they introduce rising views on clarification from desktop technology, linguistics, and anthropology.Contributors : Woo-kyoung Ahn, William F. Brewer, Patricia W. Cheng, Clark A. Chinn, Andy Clark, Robert Cummins, Clark Glymour, Alison Gopnik, Christine Johnson, Charles W. Kalish, Frank C. Keil, Robert N. McCauley, Gregory L. Murphy, Ala Samarapungavan, Herbert A. Simon, Paul Thagard, Robert A. Wilson.
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Extra resources for Explanation and Cognition (Bradford Books)
Their principal uses have been to predict the time sequences of events in the course of discoveries and the ﬁnal products. Up to the present, the largest body of theory building and testing deals with (1) data-driven discovery; and (2) experiments as discovery tools. There has been research, also, on (3) theory-driven discovery; (4) the uses of analogy in discovery and the related use of analogy in forming problem representations; and (5) the invention of scientiﬁc instruments. There have even been informal attempts to assemble these pieces of the picture into a somewhat uniﬁed theory of discovery that embraces these processes and others (see Langley, et al.
Thus downward movement of a weighted piston in a vertical cylinder that encloses a body of gas at constant temperature will, by reducing the volume of the gas, increase the gas pressure, so that a decrease in volume causes an increase in pressure. On the other hand, an increase in the temperature of the gas will cause an increase in the pressure, which will, in turn, cause the gas to expand, moving the piston outward. The same mechanism (cylinder, piston, and heat source) that directs the causation from volume to pressure in the ﬁrst case directs the causation from pressure to volume in the second.
Which is say, light arriving at the eye (Stim) causes stimulation of the retina (Ret), which causes transmission of signals to the brain, where features (Feat) are extracted, and where the stimulus is recognized (Rec) and held in short-term memory (STM). In fact, until recent decades, theories in cognitive psychology generally took some such form, making them quite ambiguous and weak in their predictive powers, but not without content. 42 Simon Conversion of such theories into computer programs increases their precision and allows many more empirically testable quantitative and qualitative predictions to be made.