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Extra resources for European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Projects
These will relate to individual geographical and climatic conditions, and local policy orientation. Analysis will take place during the two project phases – from April 2004 to September 2005 the analysis will cover France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands and Norway; and from October 2005 to March 2007 further Member States will be included. For the timeframes 2020, 2030 and 2050, the aggregated Member State specific results for GHG emissions, preferred hydrogen production and infrastructure technologies, the buildup of supply infrastructure and end-use technologies will be integrated into a proposal for an EU Hydrogen Energy Roadmap for the participating areas.
Int Project main goal(s) The final output of HyWays will be the development of an agreed set of overall policy guidelines and industrial targets reflecting consensus of the HyWays stakeholders. This will address: • Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction goals derived from the Kyoto Protocol and beyond • Energy diversification in order to reduce dependency on finite energy sources which are increasingly becoming concentrated in a few politically sensitive world regions • Anticipated market shares of FC/ICE hydrogen vehicles (offroad as well as on-road), marine applications and equipment, and the consequential impact on industrial competitiveness and employment Key issues HyWays will combine technology databases and socio- techno-economic analysis to evaluate selected stakeholder scenarios for future sustainable hydrogen energy systems.
At present, no such engine exists. Combustion engines running on cryogenic hydrogen require fuel valves or injectors providing a highly dynamic operation and a large flow-rate range. Only a sophisticated injector system enables such an engine to run at its optimum. In order to receive an effective development process for series engines, CFD tools for mixture formation and combustion have to be adapted to the specific behaviour of fluid mechanics and reaction kinetics of hydrogen (figure 2). int HyICE concepts of mixture formation 46 Due to the special properties of hydrogen, in particular the low density, high diffusivity and real gas effects, the direct injection of hydrogen leads to a number of research and development steps.