Encyclopedia of Energy by Scott Bennett

By Scott Bennett

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Pipes carry the hot water to a plant, where some of the steam is allowed to "flash," or separate from the water. That steam then turns a turbine - generator to make electricity. Geothermal energy was first used to produce electricity in Italy in 1903. At the end of 2004, there were 43 power plants producing electricity from geothermal energy in the USA. Most of these are located in California and Nevada; Utah has two geothermal plants and Hawaii, formed by volcanic eruptions, has one. Generation from geothermal sources is therefore "site specific," meaning it's only possible in a few places under unique geologic conditions.

As many modules as needed can be connected to form the array size (power output) needed. The performance of a photovoltaic array is dependent upon sunlight. , clouds, fog) have a significant effect on the amount of solar energy received by a PV array and, in turn, its performance. Most current technology photovoltaic modules are about 10 percent efficient in converting sunlight with further research being conducted to raise this efficiency to 20 percent. The pv cell was discovered in 1954 by Bell Telephone researchers examining the sensitivity of a properly prepared silicon wafer to sunlight.

They also help with flood control thus minimizing soil erosion in the watershed. Adverse effects of dams on salmon: • • • • migratory barrier killed in turbines (especially young ones swimming downstream) supersaturation of air in water (high pressure of water falling down forces air into the solution) reduced oxygen content if river flow is reduced (summer) due to separation of warm and cold water; cold water doesn't mix to be aerated (this is mostly a problem in the Tennesee Valley) Solutions: • • • Build fish "passages" to direct them towards tributaries this has proven successful for trout in Oregon Better turbine design and screen systems can help eliminate fishkill on the downstream migration Minimize turbulence in the operation of the turbine Have better flow control Geothermal Energy -Energy from the Earth's Core The word geothermal comes from the Greek words geo (earth) and therme (heat).

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