By Norman H. Hadley (auth.)
Undeniably, language is on the middle of human lifestyles. Merleau-Ponty (1945) posited that suggestion and language are one - cognition being language; language, cognition. even if any such express stance may be challenged from a couple of theoretical views as dogmatic and nonveridical, the serious position of language in humanness is irrefutable. it's what defines and distinguishes creatures on the apex of the phylogenetic scale. the truth that cognition predates verbal fluency and will take a number of nonverbal types doesn't scale back the pivotal position of language - it's a useful considered necessary, an primary. greater than an insignificant automobile to precise concept, it transforms, modifies and shapes a lot of cognition. It can't be trivialized. On many grounds guy is capably rivalled by means of reduce types of lifestyles - the gazelle is extra sleek; the lion is better; the cheetah is fleeter. it's via his use of symbols that guy usurps the ascendant place. Cassirer in Essay on guy (1946) defined guy as animal symbolicum, the animal that creates symbols and a symbolic international. via language, people go beyond time and may be able to describe occasions temporally got rid of - to mirror at the earlier, to conjecture the long run. With phrases guy can paint photographs, muse and dream, embody and console, convince and corrupt, teach and be expert. Language is a popular performatory area, nowhere greater than in Western Civilization.
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Additional resources for Elective Mutism: A Handbook for Educators, Counsellors and Health Care Professionals
If, for example, the feedback is consistently negative the individual will probably consider the option of using silence in the presence of the other person . The importance of the communication model for understanding and treating elective mutism is supported by Albert-Stewart (1986). He claimed that the major goal of treatment is reducing or eradicating the communication deficits observed in electively mute children. 24 COMMUNICA TION AND ELECTIVE MUTISM 25 SYNONYMS OF SILENCE There are four words which describe variations in silent behavior.
By refusing to speak, the electively mute children perceive that they will be protected by the parent to whom they align themselves. The work of Meijer (1979) and Atoynatan (1986) can readily be linked to Reed's anxiety-reducing elective mutism and manipulative-attention getting elective mutism. Passive aggression expressed through the medium of silence (perhaps directed at the father because of his "neglect" of the mother) and the anxiety-reducing function (not speaking to the father) ensures the continued love and support of the mother.
On each occasion, the student demonstrated that she had control over how the process evolved and she elected to participate in each of the steps of self-disclosure. THERAPEUTIC USES OF SILENCE Barbara (1966), in The Art of Listening, describes effective listeners as people who use silence with as much eagerness as they use speech. Listening is often equated with silence but many therapists are not good listeners because they are uncomfortable when they are not speaking. Silence gives the client opportunity to search for words to describe feelings or lived experiences.