Climate Change Science Compendium 2009 by United Nations

By United Nations

"The weather switch technological know-how Compendium" is a evaluate of a few four hundred significant clinical contributions to our knowing of Earth platforms and weather which have been published via peer-reviewed literature or from study associations over the past 3 years, because the shut of analysis for attention through the IPCC Fourth review document. The Compendium isn't really a consensus record or an replace of the other method. in its place, it's a presentation of a few interesting clinical findings, interpretations, rules, and conclusions that experience emerged between scientists. concentrating on paintings that brings new insights to elements of Earth method technology at numerous scales, it discusses findings from the foreign Polar yr and from new applied sciences that increase our talents to work out the Earth's platforms in new methods. proof of unforeseen charges of switch in Arctic sea ice volume, ocean acidification, and species loss emphasizes the urgency had to increase administration thoughts for addressing weather switch.

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Saltwater contamination is particularly difficult to handle on small islands because there is little possibility to retreat to available land at higher levels. Together with shore erosion, saltwater incursions into agricultural areas are already driving island populations from their communities (UN 2008). TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS As we are seeing, climate change affects a wide range of components of the Earth’s systems. Individual components of the systems react with a wide range of response times at different scales to increasing GHG concentrations in the atmosphere.

Therefore, the amount of carbon dioxide that has been—and will be—stored in the deep ocean is critically linked to the production of water masses through deep overturning events (Sabine et al. 2004). The vertical exchange that feeds the North Atlantic Deep Water current moving south along the ocean floor seemed to slow for a few years in the early 21st century (Bryden et al. 2005, Alley 2007, Lozier 2009). More recently, strong ocean convection in gyres of the sub-polar North Atlantic seems to have returned (Vage et al.

2008, Milne et al. 2009, Lettenmaier and Milly 2009, Bamber et al. 2009). Since at least the 19th century, sea-level changes have been measured directly by tide gauge records and, since the 1990s, by satellite altimetry. Sea-level changes over longer periods of time, thousands to millions of years, are inferred from geologic evidence. 7 millimetres (mm) per year. 5 mm per year. The relative importance of the three factors contributing to global average sea-level rise has varied during this time (Church 2008, WCRP 2009, Lettenmaier and Milly 2009).

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