Carbon Nanotubes by Stephanie Reich, Christian Thomsen, Janina Maultzsch

By Stephanie Reich, Christian Thomsen, Janina Maultzsch

Carbon nanotubes are enormously fascinating from a basic study standpoint. Many techniques of one-dimensional physics were confirmed experimentally akin to electron and phonon confinement or the one-dimensional singularities within the density of states; different 1D signatures are nonetheless lower than debate, comparable to Luttinger-liquid habit. Carbon nanotubes are chemically strong, robotically very powerful, and behavior electrical energy. for that reason, they open up new views for varied purposes, corresponding to nano-transistors in circuits, field-emission screens, synthetic muscle groups, or additional reinforcements in alloys. this article is an creation to the actual ideas wanted for investigating carbon nanotubes and different one-dimensional solid-state structures. Written for a large clinical readership, every one bankruptcy includes an instructive method of the subject and sustainable principles for suggestions. the previous is usually understandable for physicists and chemists, whereas the latter allow the reader to paintings in the direction of the state-of-the-art in that quarter. The publication offers for the 1st time a mixed theoretical and experimental description of themes like luminescence of carbon nanotubes, Raman scattering, or delivery measurements. The theoretical thoughts mentioned variety from the tight-binding approximation, which are through pencil and paper, to first-principles simulations. We emphasize a accomplished theoretical and experimental figuring out of carbon nanotubes together with - basic techniques for one-dimensional platforms - an advent to the symmetry of nanotubes - textbook types of nanotubes as slim cylinders - a mix of ab-initio calculations and experiments - luminescence excitation spectroscopy associated with Raman spectroscopy - an advent to the 1D-transport homes of nanotubes - results of bundling at the digital and vibrational houses and - resonance Raman scattering in nanotubes.

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Carbon Nanotubes

Carbon nanotubes are quite fascinating from a basic examine standpoint. Many options of one-dimensional physics were proven experimentally equivalent to electron and phonon confinement or the one-dimensional singularities within the density of states; different 1D signatures are nonetheless below debate, comparable to Luttinger-liquid habit.

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This offers the potential to develop optical buffers, which are the key to the exploitation of future all-optical signal processors. 20 Experimentally, the first step towards the dynamic tuning of the Q value is to control the intrinsic Q of the cavity. This can be achieved by injecting the light from the top of the slab and controlling the generation of free carriers and changes in the free carrier absorption within the photon lifetime of the cavity. As a result, the photons caged in the cavity can be eliminated faster than the original photon lifetime determined by the cavity Q.

Since the group velocity of CROWs relies on the Q of the cavity, it is essential to employ cavities with large Q/V values to achieve a large group delay and a small footprint simultaneously. indb 26 2/23/09 12:04:33 PM 27 Ultrahigh-Q Photonic Crystal Nanocavities and Their Applications constitute promising candidates for achieving ultra-slow light in an ultra-compact device on a chip. Since the basic element of a CROW is a high-Q nanocavity, it is important to study the pulse delaying performance of a photonic crystal nanocavity to show the potential of the photonic crystal based CROW.

By adjusting the DC biases applied to the single-sideband frequency modulator, we can selectively maximize the 1st or –1st order single sideband. 27. 23 × 106 from the transmittance spectrum width. 85 nm, which is slightly detuned to a longer wavelength from the cavity resonance. The frequency of the laser light was shifted to a shorter wavelength with a singlesideband modulator. The plotting interval is 1 MHz, but it is possible to use a smaller value. 26 Optical output spectrum from single-sideband modulator at a radio frequency of 10 GHz.

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